During the last 50 years vascular surgery has met an enormous evolution, paving the way for the development of modern vascular and endovascular surgery. Although, vascular surgery (VS) has emerged from general (GS) and cardiothoracic surgery (CTS), the need for specialized training has been recognized and gradually practice patterns are shifting towards vascular independence, but yet not in all countries. In these countries VS training is either permitted only after prerequisite GS certification, or as a non accredited surgical specialty, VS might be included in GS or CTS training and certification. Such a policy raises two main issues: the efficiency of vascular training within the GS or CTS curricula and the performance of vascular interventions by general or cardiothoracic surgeons. Meanwhile, the explosion of endovascular procedures has brought new disciplines into play, each one wanting to maintain its stake in the future. Interventional radiologists and a significant number of cardiologists become increasingly involved in the treatment of vascular diseases. The question of which specialist among those qualified should carry out medical treatment, open, and endovascular procedures is still suspended. Under this prism, vascular training issues arise as an important component of the future of vascular surgeons.